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前置詞:in


先月、前置詞atの使い方をご紹介しました。今回はin。前置詞としてしか使われないatと違い、inは副詞、形容詞、名詞の場合もありますが、ここでは、前置詞のinの使い方のみご紹介します。



一日の中の時間帯


in the morning

in the afternoon

in the evening



時間内(遅れずに時間までに)


I’ll be there in time.(「約束の」時間までにそこに行きます)

I caught my train just in time. (電車にちょうど間に合った)


予定・約束している時間どおりの場合はon:

There was no delay – our train came on time.


期間


I can’t believe we’ve done all that in a day.

I’ve never seen such a thing in my life.


ある期間の終わりに(〜後に)


I’ll see you in two weeks’ time.

It’ll be ready in a minute.


最後にしてからどれくらいの期間かを表す(否定文かfirstを使う)


I haven’t seen him in years.

This is England’s first win in 40 years. (= The last time England won was 40 years ago.)


月・年・季節など


in November

in 2023

in winter


普通、週には名前がついていないので、this week, last weekなどと言う場合が多いですが、以下の場合などはinです:


in the second week of November


2日以上あっても、宗教的行事の期間はat:

at Christmas

at Easter

at Ramadan



曜日や日付など1日の場合はonを使います:

on Friday

on Christmas day(12月25日のみ)

on 5 April

部屋、入れ物、ある場所(エリア内)などにいる、ある


in the bedroom

in the cupboard

in bed

in London


中で立って歩けない乗り物(車など)


I’m in a taxi.

He got in a truck and drove away.


立って歩ける乗り物はon

I’m on the plane heading to Paris.

I got on the wrong train.



本、新聞、リーフレット、写真、映画など


Who was in the film?

I read it in the newspaper.

Let me write it down in my diary.

I made some notes in the book.

You look very happy in this photo.


Paperという単語の場合はon:

Let me write it down on a piece of paper.


あるひとかたまりの中身や一部を言う時


How many letters are there in the word ‘supercalifragilisticexpialidocious’?

There are 60 minutes in an hour.

Dave wants to play in the local football team.

The second season has 7 episodes in it (it = the second season).


10人に1人など


One in 10 people in Japan are now aged 80 or older.

The chance of being struck by lightning is about one in 10 million.


複数形の単位など


We usually work in pairs.

Eggs are often sold in half dozens.

People gathered in their thousands to welcome the rock band.


手段やどんなふうに何かをしたかを言う


You can’t sign in pencil – you need to use a pen.

Please write your name in capital letters.

She sang in a soft voice.

People pray in silence.

My hotel room was decorated in the Egyptian style.

She explained it to me in Japanese.


状態や様子を表す


Am I in trouble?

This antique box is in excellent condition.

I’ve heard that their marriage is in ruins.

I’m in a positive frame of mind after meditation.


複数の人(グループ)ですること


Over 50 people took part in the cooking contest.

Ben played a large part in the Just Stop Oil protests.

She tried to involve Peter in negotiations.


形などを表す


We all sat in a circle around the camp fire.

You should be able to walk in a straight line if you’re sober.

The cat curled up in a ball.


色や素材


I don’t like the colour of this jacket. Do you have one in red?

I knitted a jumper in wool.


洋服などを着ている


You look very nice in a black dress.

Libby goes everywhere in her school uniform.


業界

I’m in the film industry.

Mandy’s been in politics for years.


空気・空


The stars in the sky are so beautiful here.

There’s some dust in the air.


その他色々な使い方の一部を例文でご紹介します:


Do you want to sit in the shade or in the sun?

I’m standing in the rain at the bus stop.

There was a steep increase in energy prices.

That’s not right, in my opinion.

Spinach is rich in vitamin K.

Vitamin K is found in spinach.

Could you remind me just in case?

We planted an oak tree in her honour.

I like that in you.


in the nightとat nightの違い、in the beginning とat the beginningの違いはatのページをご覧ください。



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